Endoscopy means looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an instrument called an endoscope. Endoscopy can also refer to using a borescope in technical situations where direct line-of-sight observation is not feasible.
Endoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic medical procedure that is used to assess the interior surfaces of an organ by inserting a tube into the body. The instrument may have a rigid or flexible tube and not only provide an image for visual inspection and photography, but also enable taking biopsies and retrieval of foreign objects. Endoscopy is the vehicle for minimally invasive surgery.
Many endoscopic procedures are considered to be relatively painless and, at worst, associated with mild discomfort; for example, in esophagogastroduodenoscopy, most patients tolerate the procedure with only topical anaesthesia of the oropharynx using lignocaine spray. Complications are not common (only 5% of all operations)but can include perforation of the organ under inspection with the endoscope or biopsy instrument. If that occurs open surgery may be required to repair the injury.