A Galvanic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from chemical reactions taking place within the cell. It generally consists of two different metals connected by a salt bridge, or individual half-cells separated by a porous membrane. It is sometimes called a "Voltaic cell", after Alessandro Volta, inventor of the voltaic pile, the first electrical battery. In common usage, the word "battery" has come to include a single Galvanic cell, but a battery properly consists of multiple cells.
Paramecium bursaria is a species of ciliate protozoan that has a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with green algae called Zoochlorella. The algae live inside the Paramecium in its cytoplasm and provide it with food, while the Paramecium provides the algae with movement and protection. P. bursaria is 80-150 μm long, with a wide oral groove, two contractile vacuoles, and a single micronucleus as well as a single macronucleus. P. bursaria is the only species of Paramecium that forms symbiotic relationships with algae, and it is often used in biology classrooms both as an example of a protozoan and also as an example of symbiosis.
The phi X 174 (or phi X) bacteriophage was the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced. This work was completed by Fred Sanger and his team in 1977. In 1962, Walter Fiers had already demonstrated the physical, covalently closed circularity of phi X 174 DNA.This phage has a very small amount of DNA. Phi X has 11 genes in 5386 bases (it is single stranded) in a circular topology; several of these genes express similar function in two groups. The GC-content is 44% and 95% of nucleotides are coding genes.
Kinesins are a class of motor proteins found in eukaryotic cells. Kinesins move along microtubule cables powered by the hydrolysis of ATP (thus kinesins are ATPases). The active movement of kinesins supports several cellular functions including mitosis, meiosis and transport of cargo such as axonal transport.
In the cell small molecules, such as gases and glucose, diffuse to where they are needed. Large molecules synthesised in the cell body, intracellular components such as vesicles, and organelles such as mitochondria are too large (and the cytosol too crowded) to diffuse to their destinations. Motor proteins fulfill the role of transporting large cargo about the cell to their required destinations. Kinesins are motor proteins that transport such cargo by walking unidirectionally along microtubule tracks hydrolysing one molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) at each step.It was thought that ATP hydrolysis powered each step, the energy released propelling the head forwards to the next binding site. However, it has been proposed that the head diffuses forward and the force of binding to the microtubule is what pulls the cargo along.
Protein kinase C also known as PKC (EC 22.214.171.124) is a family of enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins. PKC enzymes in turn are activated by signals such as increases in the concentration of diacylglycerol or Ca2+. Hence PKC enzymes play important roles in several signal transduction cascades.
The PKC family consists of about ten isozymes. They are divided into three subfamilies, based on their second messenger requirements: conventional (or classical), novel, and atypical. Conventional (c)PKCs contain the isoforms α, βI, βII, and γ. These require Ca2+, diacylglycerol (DAG), and a phospholipid such as phosphatidylserine for activation. Novel (n)PKCs include the δ, ε, η, and θ isoforms, and require DAG, but do not require Ca2+ for activation. Thus, conventional and novel PKCs are activated through the same signal transduction pathway as phospholipase C. On the other hand, atypical (a)PKCs (including protein kinase Mζ and ι / λ isoforms) require neither Ca2+ nor diacylglycerol for activation. The term "protein kinase C" usually refers to the entire family of isoforms.
Upon activation, protein kinase C enzymes are translocated to the plasma membrane by RACK proteins (membrane-bound receptor for activated protein kinase C proteins). The protein kinase C enzymes are known for their long-term activation: They remain activated after the original activation signal or the Ca2+-wave is gone. This is presumably achieved by the production of diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol by a phospholipase; fatty acids may also play a role in long-term activation.