Naive T lymphocytes leave blood stream across the specialised endotherlial wall o blood vessel called High endothelial venule(HEV).
The specialized endothelium synthesis number of molecules which are involved in lymphocyte homing in the lymph node.In particlualr homing receptor GLYCAM1 and ICAM-1 and chemokine such as MIP3 beta.
Initial binding of Naive T cells to the vascular endothelium is mediated by L-selectin binding to GLYCAM1 ,subsequently chemokine binding occurs which triggers binding of intergin LFA-1 to its ligand ICAM1.
Lymphocytes are able to migrate across endothelium and into T cell area of lymph node.
Naive T cells can inspect Dendritic Cells in the lymph node for the presence of specific antigens.If T cells didn't recognise antigen,then T cells are not activated and passed out of lymph node to return to the circulation.
T cells that don meet the speciic antigen in the lymph node are activated and begins to proliferate and mature into effector cells.
Immunological synapse. (2009, June 3). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 03:03, June 3, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Immunological_synapse&oldid=294087337
On the viral surface of hemogglutinin is a complex with 3 identical sub units.
A neurite refers to any projection from the cell body of a neuron. This projection can be either an axon or a dendrite. The term is frequently used when speaking of immature or developing neurons, especially of cells in culture, because it can be difficult to tell axons from dendrites before differentiation is complete.
- The sound sensitive cells in our ear is called hair cells, Each has a tough spiky extensions called Stereocilia on its upper surface and each sends signal to auditory nerve fibers through its basal surface.
- Hair cells are embedded in a layer supporting cells and are sandwiched between two sheaths extra cellular matrix, the tectorial membrane and basilar membrane.
- Sound vibrations cause the basilar membrane to vibrate, and this motion pushes the Stereocilia against the tectoral membrane.
- Stereocilia tilt, triggering an electrical response in the hair cells, the activated hair cell in turn activates the auditory nerve cells.
- Hair cell membrane contains stretch activated ion channels; these channels are closed when Stereocilia is not tilted.
- However, when the steroecilia tilt a linking the filament from one Stereocilium to the channel neighboring stereocilium pulls at the channel opening it. Positive charged ions flow into the cell and depolarizing the membrane
Partially folded chain is transferred to second chaperone calrecticulam,which further aids folding the chain and association with beta 2-Microglobulin.
Other proteins Frp57 and tapasin associate with it.
Class I molecule binds with the TAP Transporter to form peptide Loading complex.
The peptides that bind to MHC class 1 proteins are geneated by Proteosomes.
In cytoplasm Proteasome generates peptide fragments which will bind to MHC class 1 Protein.
The proteasome degrades protein into shorter fragments within cytosol and transports it to ER by TAP transporter.
By the process of Peptide ending ,non-binding and unstable peptides are released from ER.
Peptides with stable affinity binds with MHC molecule form stable complex.
Final phase of folding MHC class 1 molecule takes place.
Disassociation of Peptide Holding Complex takes place.
Peptide loaded with MHC class 1 molecule exits from ER and Moves to Cell surface with help of Golgi apparatus.where its recognized by by Antigen Receptors of CD8 Tcells.
This Animation shows how HCV infection and Replication
This animation shows The cells Response To HCV
These two Animation shows TCell response to HCV
T cell response to MHC II
Proliferation of T cell by IL-10
Basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of nuclei in the brain interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. Mammalian basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions: motor control, cognition, emotions, and learning. In modern use the term 'ganglia' is in this instance considered a misnomer; 'ganglion' refers to concentrations of neural nuclei in the periphery only (for example those of the autonomic nervous system), and the term 'basal nuclei' is preferred.
The five individual nuclei that make up the primate basal ganglia, along with their major subdivisions, are:
the striatum, which consists of
external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe)
internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi)
subthalamic nucleus (STN)
substantia nigra (SN)
substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc)
substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr)
substantia nigra pars lateralis (SNl)
There are 2 sets of basal ganglia in the mammalian brain, mirrored in the left and right hemispheres.
Two coronal sections are used to show the basal ganglia; the STN and substantia nigra lie deeper back in the brain (more caudal). Images show two schematic coronal cross-sections of the human brain with nuclei of the basal ganglia labeled on the right side.
Functionally, the basal ganglia consist of a series of circuits, such as skeletomotor, limbic and occulomotor circuits. Each circuit projects to specific nuclei within the basal ganglia and its projections e.g. the skeletomotor circuit projects to the ventral lateral, lateral ventral anterior and centromedian thalamic nuclei.
Basal ganglia. (2009, May 19). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:08, May 19, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Basal_ganglia&oldid=291041764
High-density lipoproteins (HDL), often referred to as the "Good Cholesterol", circulates in the blood stream collecting fat and cholesterol from arteries and transporting them to the liver for removal. The movie shows how these lipoproteins (in blue and green) can gather the fat molecules (in white and brown) into small particles allowing them to flow through blood vessels.
SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, is a technique widely used in biochemistry, forensics, genetics and molecular biology to separate proteins according to their electrophoretic mobility (a function of length of polypeptide chain or molecular weight). SDS gel electrophoresis of samples having identical charge per unit mass due to binding of SDS results in fractionation by size and is probably the world's most widely used biochemical method.
The filaments of myofibrils, myofilaments, consist of two types, thick and thin.