ABO blood group system
Rhesus blood group system
FLU shots (flu vaccine) are made-up of dead viral particles of influenza strains. When this fragments are injected individual immune system responds by producing specific antibodies which protect the vaccinated person against infection, following immunization some people may experience mild Flu like symptoms, but usually goes away after 48 hours, As a result the immune system responding to built protection
- There are more than 350 million sperm in a single ejaculate, but only 1 sperm fertilizes an ovum.
- In the vagina mucous is the semen must be dissolved by a enzyme before sperm can move.
- Initial reduction of sperm occurs at the cervix, and about 1 million sperm enters the uterus.
- Uterine contractions carry the sperm towards the fallopiantube, but only 1000 enters fallopian tube.
- Although about 100 sperm reach the ovum only one sperm fuses the with its nucleus
- Amygdala: Involved in signaling the cortex of motivationally significant stimuli such as those related to reward and fear in addition to social functions such as mating.
- Hippocampus:Required for the formation of long-term memories and implicated in maintenance of cognitive maps for navigation.
- Parahippocampal gyrus: Plays a role in the formation of spatial memory * Cingulate gyrus:Autonomic functions regulating heart rate, blood pressure and cognitive and attentional processing
- Fornix:carries signals from the hippocampus to the mammillary bodies and septal nuclei.
- Hypothalamus:Regulates the autonomic nervous system via hormone production and release. Affects and regulates blood pressure, heart rate, hunger, thirst, sexual arousal, and the sleep/wake cycle
- Thalamus: The "relay station" to the cerebral cortex
- Mammillary body: Important for the formation of memory
- Pituitary gland: secretes hormones regulating homeostasis
- Dentate gyrus: thought to contribute to new memories and to regulate happiness.
- Entorhinal cortex and piriform cortex: Receive smell input in the olfactory system.
- Fornicate gyrus: Region encompassing the cingulate, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus
- Olfactory bulb: Olfactory sensory input
- Nucleus accumbens: Involved in reward, pleasure, and addiction
- Orbitofrontal cortex: Required for decision making
Types of interferon
There are three major classes of interferons that have been described for humans according to the type of receptor through which they signal:
- Interferon type I: All type I IFNs bind to a specific cell surface receptor complex known as the IFN-α receptor (IFNAR) that consists of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains. The type I interferons present in humans are IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-ω.
- Interferon type II: Binds to IFNGR. In humans this is IFN-γ.
- Interferon type III: Signal through a receptor complex consisting of IL10R2 (also called CRF2-4) and IFNLR1 (also called CRF2-12). Interferon type III is not accepted as a separate classification in mainstream Medicine.
If 2 is increased in the blood at the lungs, the equilibrium shifts to the right and H+ ions increase.
Immune mechanism is designed to protect body against invading microorganisms and foreign potentially harmful molecules.There are four types of immune mechanism; the nature of invading antigen determines which type of mechanism bought into action.Certain antigen promotes exaggerated response called hypersensitive reaction or an allergy, which may be harmful to body tissues.
Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate body's principal means of delivering oxygen to the body tissues via the blood. They take up oxygen in the lungs or gills and release it while squeezing through the body's capillaries. The cells are filled with hemoglobin, a biomolecule that can bind to oxygen. The blood's red color is due to the color of hemoglobin. In humans, red blood cells develop in the bone marrow and live for about 120 days; they take the form of flexible biconcave disks that lack a cell nucleus and organelles and they cannot synthesize protein.
Red blood cells are also known as RBCs, red blood corpuscles (an archaic term), haematids or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow", with cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage). The capitalized term Red Blood Cells is the proper name in the US for erythrocytes in storage solution used in transfusion medicine.
An invisible (infrared) pulsed laser beam transmits a liquid (water) and is ablating a solid (gold) releasing stable nanoparticles (positively charged gold nanoparticle with negative solvatisation zeta potential) .
Toll-like receptor. (2009, May 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 13:36, May 12, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Toll-like_receptor&oldid=287743888
The fifth stage is: "Isovolumic ventricular relaxation", Pressure decreases, no blood is entering the ventricles, ventricles stop contracting and begin to relax, semilunars are shut because blood in the aorta is pushing them shut. Throughout the cardiac cycle, the blood pressure increases and decreases. The cardiac cycle is coordinated by a series of electrical impulses that are produced by specialized heart cells found within the sino-atrial node and the atrioventricular node. The cardiac muscle is composed of myocytes which initiate their own contraction without help of external nerves
Detection of atrial systole
Ventricular systoleVentricular systole is the contraction of the muscles (myocardia) of the left and right ventricles.
It is most structurally and functionally complex organ of endocrine system. All vertebrates have a pituitary gland with a common basic structure and function. In addition to its endocrine functions, the pituitary may play a role in the immune response.
- thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which stimulates the secretion of the thyroid hormones;
- adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), which acts on the adrenal cortex to promote the release of cortisol;
- gonadotrophins LH and FSH, which act on the ovaries and testes. They are however named after their effects in women; FSH stimulates growth of the ovarian follicle containing the ovum or egg and LH stimulates production of oestrogen and progesterone from the ovary. The actions in the male are analogous; FSH stimulates sperm production and LH stimulates testosterone production by the testes.
Prolactin acts chiefly to cause milk production in the breasts.
The posterior pituitary
ssDNA template is hybridized to a sequencing primer and incubated with the enzymes DNA polymerase, ATP sulfurylase, luciferase and apyrase, and with the substrates adenosine 5´ phosphosulfate (APS) and luciferin.
1. The addition of one of the four deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs)(in the case of dATP we add dATPαS which is not a substrate for a luciferase) initiates the second step. DNA polymerase incorporates the correct, complementary dNTPs onto the template. This incorporation releases pyrophosphate (PPi) stoichiometrically.
2. ATP sulfurylase quantitatively converts PPi to ATP in the presence of adenosine 5´ phosphosulfate. This ATP acts as fuel to the luciferase-mediated conversion of luciferin to oxyluciferin that generates visible light in amounts that are proportional to the amount of ATP. The light produced in the luciferase-catalyzed reaction is detected by a camera and analyzed in a program.
3. Unincorporated nucleotides and ATP are degraded by the apyrase, and the reaction can restart with another nucleotide.
Currently, a limitation of the method is that the lengths of individual reads of DNA sequence are in the neighborhood of 300-500 nucleotides, shorter than the 800-1000 obtainable with chain termination methods (e.g. Sanger sequencing). This can make the process of genome assembly more difficult, particularly for sequence containing a large amount of repetitive DNA. As of 2007, pyrosequencing is most commonly used for resequencing or sequencing of genomes for which the sequence of a close relative is already available.
The templates for pyrosequencing can be made both by solid phase template preparation (Streptavidin coated magnetic beads) and enzymatic template preparation (Apyrase+Exonuclease).